Luigi Swich, in his article "Further thoughts on Bach's 1722 temperament", This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 17:46. 19: Prelude and Fugue in A major, BWV 888, No. In the year 1722. The first set was compiled in 1722 during Bach's appointment in Köthen; the second followed 20 years later in 1742 while he was in Leipzig. 2: Prelude and Fugue in C minor, BWV 847, No. Internal evidence for this may be seen in the fact that in Book 1 Bach paired the E♭ minor prelude (6 flats) with its enharmonic key of D♯ minor (6 sharps) for the fugue. Bach gave the title Das Wohltemperirte Clavier to a book of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, dated 1722, composed "for the profit and use of musical youth desirous of learning, and especially for the pastime of those already skilled in this study". Early version BWV 855a of the Prelude in Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (No. However, they disagree as to which key receives which character: More recently there has been a series of proposals of temperaments derived from the handwritten pattern of loops on Bach's 1722 title page. Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp minor, BWV 859 [commons]. p. t: Hochfürstlich Anhalt-Cöthenischen Capel-Meistern und Directore derer Camer Musiquen. [49], Alexander Siloti transcribed a piano arrangement of the early version of Prelude and Fugue in E minor (BWV 855a), transposed into a Prelude in B minor. Prelude and Fugue in C minor, BWV 847. [citation needed], Mozart transcribed some of the fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavier for string ensemble:[36][37], Fantasy No. [10], J.C.F. The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das Wohltemperirte Clavier in the original German title), BWV 846?893, is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. [52] Daniel Chorzempa made the first recording using multiple instruments (harpsichord, clavichord, organ, and fortepiano) for Philips in 1982. Prelude and Fugue in E major, BWV 854 [commons]. In March 2015, the pianist Kimiko Douglass-Ishizaka released a new and complete recording of Book 1 into the public domain. Prelude and Fugue in D major, BWV 850 [de; commons]. [18] There is debate whether Bach meant a range of similar temperaments, perhaps even altered slightly in practice from piece to piece, or a single specific "well-tempered" solution for all purposes. Prelude and Fugue in D-sharp minor, BWV 877 [commons]. [53] As of 2013, over 150 recordings have been documented. Prelude and Fugue in D major, BWV 874 [commons]. Prelude and Fugue in F major, BWV 856 [commons]. Prelude and Fugue in E-flat major, BWV 876 [commons]. CLASSICAL GUITAR LESSONS AUCKLAND with John Wakelin MMus, GradDipTchg. However, research has continued into various unequal systems contemporary with Bach's career. ), but are generally more compact than Bach's fugues for organ. Forkel reports that Bach tuned his own harpsichords and clavichords and found other people's tunings unsatisfactory; his own allowed him to play in all keys and to modulate into distant keys almost without the listeners noticing it. 16: Praeludium 3. (See also musical tuning.) [46] In the liner notes to the Clair de Lune compilation of piano encores issued by CBS Masterworks, Philippe Entremont relates an anecdote in which von Bülow, having a distaste for the endless clamor for encores, was facing a thunderously applauding house and raised his hand, saying "Ladies and Gentlemen! Prelude in E-flat minor and Fugue in D-sharp minor, BWV 853 [commons]. Musically, the structural regularities of the Well-Tempered Clavier encompass an extraordinarily wide range of styles, more so than most pieces in the literature. Prelude and Fugue in F major, BWV 880 [commons]. The fugues employ a full range of contrapuntal devices (fugal exposition, thematic inversion, stretto, etc. Several attempts have been made to analyse the motivic connections between each prelude and fugue,[31] – most notably Wilhelm Werker[32] and Johann Nepomuk David[33] The most direct motivic reference appears in the B major set from Book 1, in which the fugue subject uses the first four notes of the prelude, in the same metric position but at half speed. Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp major, BWV 858 [commons]. Prelude and Fugue in A-flat major, BWV 886 [commons]. Anno 1722. It is sometimes assumed that by "well-tempered" Bach intended equal temperament, the standard modern keyboard tuning which became popular after Bach's death, but modern scholars suggest instead a form of well temperament. Apart from the early versions of several preludes included in W. F. Bach's Klavierbüchlein (1720) there is an almost complete collection of "Prelude and Fughetta" versions predating the 1722 autograph, known from a later copy by an unidentified scribe.[27]. In the 20th century Dmitri Shostakovich wrote his 24 Preludes and Fugues, an even closer reference to Bach's model. Fischer's Ariadne musica neo-organoedum (published in 1702 and reissued 1715) is a set of 20 prelude-fugue pairs in ten major and nine minor keys and the Phrygian mode, plus five chorale-based ricercars. Before the advent of modern tonality in the late 17th century, numerous composers produced collections of pieces in all seven modes: Johann Pachelbel's magnificat fugues (composed 1695–1706), Georg Muffat's Apparatus Musico-organisticus of 1690 and Johann Speth's Ars magna of 1693 for example. Prelude and Fugue in G-sharp minor, BWV 887. 11: Prelude and Fugue in F major, BWV 856, No. Prelude also in WFB Klavierbüchlein, No. [54], Harpsichord performances of various parts of Book I by Martha Goldstein are in the public domain. In each book the first Prelude and Fugue is in C major, followed by a Prelude and Fugue in its parallel minor key (C minor). Bach's son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach himself published a rather vague tuning method which was close to but still not equal temperament: having only "most of" the fifths tempered, without saying which ones nor by how much. [38][39] Beethoven played the entire Well-Tempered Clavier by the time he was eleven, and produced an arrangement of BWV 867, for string quintet. The title page of the first book of the Well-Tempered Clavier reads: An early version of the prelude, BWV 846a, is found in Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (No. 6: Prelude and Fugue in D minor, BWV 851, No. Prelude also in WFB Klavierbüchlein, No. From this Sparschuh devised a recursive tuning algorithm resembling the, Michael Zapf in 2001 reinterpreted the loops as indicating the rate of, John Charles Francis in 2004 performed a mathematical analysis of the loops using, Graziano Interbartolo and others in 2006 proposed. 24 groups of dances, "clearly related to 12 major and 12 minor keys" (1584) by, 30 preludes for 12-course lute or theorbo by, Herbert Anton Kellner argued from the mid-1970s until his death that esoteric considerations such as the pattern of Bach's, Andreas Sparschuh, in the course of studying German Baroque organ tunings, assigned mathematical and acoustic meaning to the loops. Zum Nutzen und Gebrauch der Lehrbegierigen Musicalischen Jugend, als auch derer in diesem studio schon habil seyenden besonderem Zeitvertreib auffgesetzet und verfertiget von Johann Sebastian Bach. Prelude and Fugue in B major, BWV 892 [commons]. [11] Other contemporary works include the treatise Exemplarische Organisten-Probe (1719) by Johann Mattheson (1681–1764), which included 48 figured bass exercises in all keys,[12] Partien auf das Clavier (1718) by Christoph Graupner (1683–1760) with eight suites in successive keys,[13] and Friedrich Suppig's Fantasia from Labyrinthus Musicus (1722), a long and formulaic sectional composition ranging through all 24 keys which was intended for an enharmonic keyboard with 31 notes per octave and pure major thirds. [55] Such harpsichord performances may, for instance, be tuned in equal temperament,[56] or in Werckmeister temperament. Prelude as a theme with variations. Bach. Prelude and Fugue in B-flat minor, BWV 891. Eric Schenk (author), translated from the German by Richard and Clara Winston & Winston (eds) (1959). Prelude and Fugue in G major, BWV 860 [commons]. Bach may have tuned differently per occasion, or per composition, throughout his career. Das Wohltemperirte Clavier oder Præludia, und Fugen durch alle Tone und Semitonia, so wohl tertiam majorem oder Ut Re Mi anlangend, als auch tertiam minorem oder Re Mi Fa betreffend.

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